For both groups I and II lacrimal PPRV genome excretion was detected with similar value from D3, nasal PPRV genome excretion from D6, rectal PPRV genome excretion at D6. Vet Microbiol. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have set up a global eradication program based on epidemiological surveillance, early case finding and comprehensive vaccination campaigns. Despite the hyperthermia, very low viraemia is detected by PCR. PLoS One. The second goat was euthanized at D7 with a clinical score of 17. The clinical signs were observed and goats were euthanized at predetermined clinical score level for post-mortem examinations and PPRV detection by RT-PCR. 157, Z. I., Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P: 278, 28810, Mohammedia, Morocco, Z. Bamouh, F. Fakri, M. Jazouli, N. Safini, K. Omari Tadlaoui & M. Elharrak, You can also search for this author in The test was based on serial 1:3 dilutions of heat inactivated sera, mixed with a constant dose of PPR virus (100 TCID50), incubated for 1 h, and then inoculated onto Vero cells to be observed for neutralization of cytopathic effect (CPE) after 7 days of the incubation period at 37 °C with 5% of CO2. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. Clinical signs of infection were present, pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia, for both cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue. The incursion, persistence and spread of peste des petits ruminants in Tanzania: epidemiological patterns and predictions. 1988;52:46–52. Vaccine. Swabs were collected in 2 ml PBS supplemented and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. Lower Ct were obtained in the spleen, intestine, liver, kidney and heart (30.3, 31.2, 32.6, 35.6 and 37.4 respectively). Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. It is also known that goats are more sensitive than sheep especially for North African breed as described by many authors [19, 29, 30]. First group of two goats 1 and 2 injected with viral suspension developed hyperthermia for 7 days, a peak was noticed at 7-day post infection at 40.7 °C with 3 and 5 days up to 40 °C (Fig. In the case of PI virus, and despite its freqeuncy, little is known regarding to their mechanism of pathogenesis. 1). El Harrak M, Touil N, Loutfi C, Hammouchi M, Parida S, Sebbar G, et al. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Prev Vet Med. The experiment infection was carried out according to the protocol described by El Harrak et al. PLoS One. Directives EU Commission. Experimental Measles. Adult animals can carry the virus with mild or no signs, which represent a constraint for diagnostic and surveillance. Adequate knowledge of the diversity of circulating strains of PPR virus will help livestock authorities choose appropriate vaccines. USA.gov. the disease early detection need to be better understood this study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of ppr following experimental infection of goats using a in peste des petits ruminants virus Oct 01, 2020 Posted By Zane Grey Library (2012) with great success. Transmission occurs by direct or indirect contact with virus-contaminated excrements of … Goats were fed a complete balanced diet and water ad libitum and housed in animal boxes (Biosecurity level 3 containment) at MCI Santé Animale. The rectal temperature was recorded for each animal of each group during the quarantine period by repeated measurements. Kgotlele T, Macha ES, Kasanga CJ, Kusiluka LJ, Karimuribo ED, Van Doorsselaere J, Wensman JJ, Munir M, Misinzo G. Transbound Emerg Dis. J Off l’Union Eur. 2013;165:38–44. A macrophage-associated viremia follows, infecting general lymphoid tissue. Nasal discharge (a), hypertrophy of mesenteric nodes (b) and lung congestion (c) observed on Peste des Petits Ruminants infected goat. Peste des petits ruminants. The vaccinated animals should be completely protected after the experimental infection and unvaccinated animals must show typical signs of PPR. CAS  The two goats 3 and 4 of group II (tissue virus) developed hyperthermia for 8 days, a peak at D4 at 40.9 °C; 7 and 6 days up to 40 °C for each goat. In: OIE Terrestrial Manual; 2013. p. 1–14. dual infection of PPR and goatpox in indigenous goats was earlier reported in central India [11]. Viral Pathogenesis This lecture will define and discuss the basic principles of viral pathogenesis, the entire process by which viruses cause disease. All animals were observed daily, with rectal temperature, clinical signs and clinical scoring recorded throughout the study. Title: Viral pathogenesis 1 Viral pathogenesis. 2014;10:1–10. Buczkowski H, Muniraju M, Parida S, Banyard AC.  |  Privacy Cell culture is always preferable to tissue because of purity concern and known titre. Including fever, respiratory signs, inappetence, marked depression, erosive stomatitis, catarrhal inflammation of ocular and nasal mucous, profuse diarrhea which may be watery, fetid and blood-stained, very often end-stage bronchopneumonia due to bacterial complications related to immunosuppression. nasal and lacrimal discharges, coughing and dyspnea (Fig. Hammouchi M, Loutfi C, Sebbar G, Touil N, Chaffai N, Batten C, et al. Results: 2011;171:401–4. PPRV infection was experimentally induced in 4 six-month-old goats by intra-nasal and intravenous route of cell virus suspension and from infectious mashed tissue. Rinderpest has been globally eradicated by mass vaccination. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan. Results of this study indicates that PPRV is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days, invade all vital organs. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. in the digestive tract he intestinal mucosa of the small intestine were moderately congested. 2004;23:807–19. Epub 2014 May 13. Experimental infection; Goats; Lineage IV; PPR virus; Pathogenesis; Tissue tropism. The obtained results demonstrate that the 2015 Morocco isolate, genotype IV, is highly virulent and could be used in challenge to test vaccine efficacy under specified conditions. 2011;95:168–73. Goats were allowed to acclimate to the laboratory environment for a quarantine period prior to experimental infection with PPRV. Evidence that circulating lymphocytes act as vehicles or viraemia in measles. Couacy-Hymann E, Bodjo C, Danho T, Libeau G, Diallo A. Each goat of the two inoculated groups was infected by two different routes of inoculation, 1 ml via intravenous (IV) route and 1 ml via intra-nasal (IN) spray. Arch Virol. The economic impact of eradicating peste des petits ruminants: a benefit-cost analysis. Animal experiments were carried out in accordance with the international guidelines for care and handling of experimental animals. Vet J. Acta Vet Scand. Despite the ability of PPR outbreaks to cause widespread deaths in livestock, the precise viral-induced pathogenesis is still not fully understood. 2010;276:1–162. BMC Vet Res 15, 452 (2019). Serological testing was carried out every 3 days. 2014 Aug;61 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):56-62. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12229. The isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from northern India. No virus is known to do good. The first detection of antibody seroconversion were detected from 6 dpi for one animal of group II with a 1.02 log10 value of antibody neutralizing titer by VNT. Results presented are average temperature of four goats infected with cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue, signs and lesions observed on goats. Both presented lacrimal, mucopurulent nasal discharges, dyspnea, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia. The pathogenesis associated with PPR virus (PPRV) has largely been assumed from that established for closely related viruses such as rinderpest virus (RPV), measles virus and … Histopathological study of a natural outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in goats of Tamilnadu. Eds Barret. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. In the study, characteristics lesions of PPR disease were obtained in post mortem tissues. NS data analysis and critical review of the manuscript. J Gen Virol. 2), trachea was congested and mesenteric and pulmonary nodes were enlarged and hypertrophied. A real time RT-PCR assay for the specific detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Yanagi Y, Takeda M, Ohno S. Measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis. Age and species are the key factor to succeed a PPR experimental infection. However. Similar signs has been also observed by several authors confirming that PPR is dominated by pulmonary signs [20, 31, 32]. -, Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. Virology. Zahur AB, Ullah A, Irshad H, Farooq MS, Hussain M, Jahangir M. Epidemiological investigations of a Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) outbreak in afghan sheep in Pakistan. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000944. Use of Animals In Research And Education. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 2014 Jan 30;9(1):e87145. non-immunosuppressed (Group-A), immunosuppressed (Group-B) … Aruni AW, Lalitha PS, Mohan AC, Chitravelu P, Anbumani SP. -. On live animals early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal swabs, rectal swabs show the lowest Ct. The protocol was submitted and approved by the internal Laboratory Committee. The study protocol was submitted and approved by the Internal Ethic Committee “Internal ethic committee for animal experiment, MCI santé animale”. For mortality criteria, the first to die at D7 had 3 points, the last one at D10, the two others had 2 point as they died at D9, Group II presented a higher mortality score (2.5) comparatively with group I (1.5) (Table 1). The second animal of group II died at D9 before we could take a sample for analysis. 2007;173:178–83. We confirm in our study the high virulence of the used 2015 Morocco strain (mortality up to D10) comparatively to the 2008 Morocco strain for which mortality occurs later (up to D33) [31]. Used route of infection is the most appropriate since IN spray reproduce the natural infection conditions and the IV injection allow to secure a minimal quantity of the virus administered. Part of OIE. eCollection 2020. Vet Microbiol. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. Nasal discharge (. 2015;181:90–106. Development and validation of an epitope-blocking ELISA using an anti-haemagglutinin monoclonal antibody for specific detection of antibodies in sheep and goat sera directed against peste des petits ruminants virus. ~~ Book Molecular Biology And Pathogenesis Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Springerbriefs In Animal Sciences ~~ Uploaded By James Patterson, peste de petits ruminants ppr is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies the authors are experts in the field and Kumar N, Maherchandani S, Kashyap SK, Singh SV, Sharma S, Chaubey KK, Ly H. Viruses. It warrants appropriate control measures since goatpox virus can be of threat [14] and exhibits change in host speci-ficity and pathogenesis [9,15]. Osunkoya B, Ukaejiofo E, Ajayi O, Akinyemi A. PLoS One. Research and Development, MCI Santé Animale, Lot. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants among sheep and goats in India. ME participated in the design of the study, data analysis, interpretations and manuscript drafting. VNT test was done as described in the OIE Terrestrial Manual [13]. The morbilliviruses display a strong tropism for lymphoid tissues and during infection destruction of leucocytes often causes a profound immunosuppression [10]. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Vet Microbiol. Rectal temperatures of goats following…, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. Dou Y, Liang Z, Prajapati M, Zhang R, Li Y, Zhang Z. -, Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Servan de Almeida R, Libeau G. Peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease? statement and PubMed Central  As described by several authors, susceptibility to the virus decrease rapidly with age. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Group II presented an earlier hyperthermia and higher temperature values than group I (Fig. Animals were maintained 2 weeks under observations before starting the following experiments. Rev Sci Tech l’OIE. Rajak KK, Sreenivasa BP, Hosamani M, Singh RP, Singh SK, Singh RK, et al. Pathogenesis. With morbidity and mortality rates that can be as high as 90%, PPR is classified as an OIE (Office International des Epizooties)-listed disease. Kivaria FM, Kwiatek O, Kapaga AM, Swai ES, Libeau G, Moshy W, et al. Google Scholar. The cell virus suspension had a titer of 6.2 logTCID50/ml. Experimental studies on immunosuppressive effects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in goats. Field serological investigation for peste des petits ruminants, foot-and-mouth disease, and bluetongue diseases in illegally introduced animals in Egypt. Peste des petits ruminants. PPRV genome was highly detected in swabs and tissues with clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary. 2004;51:153–9. On live animals, early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal and rectal swabs. The early mortality observed in all animals was associated with a high clinical score. Epub 2020 Mar 3. The mortality rate is 90-100%, and the morbidity rate may reach up to 100%. J Gen Virol. Group III (goats 5 and 6) was inoculated by placebo solution and this group was in a separated room from the other groups. 1990;9:35–9. The two goats 1 and 2 of group I were euthanized at D9 and D10, presenting respectively a clinical score of 13 and 15. Signs, lesions, mortality and viral charge are clearly expressed in group II (infected with tissue mixture) comparatively to group I (infected by cell suspension). The lungs were red with area firm to touch, mainly in the anterior and cardiac lobes (Fig. Sera samples from goats were tested at a 1:100 dilution for PPRV antibody by an ELISA using PANVAC PPR-Ab check bELISA purchased from AU-PANVAC. Although PPRV-infected animals were known to exhibit clinical signs similar to rinderpest [1], it was not until the late 1970’s that PPR pathogenesis was evaluated in … 1). Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. 2). Parida S, Muniraju M, Mahapatra M, Muthuchelvan D, Buczkowski H, Banyard AC. The body temperature of two goats of group III 5 and 6 used as unvaccinated controls, remained normal and do not exceed 39,4 °C. 86% of hill goats (13 of 15) experimentally infected with a virulent Indian isolate (PPR/Izatnagar/94) died between 9 and 13 days pi [25]. 2005;28:287–96. Special Issue Information. 2016;197:137–41. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. Regarding the five selected criteria, goats 3 and 4 of group II presented a higher severity score (102.2) comparatively with of group I (86.8) (Table 1). Baron MD, Diop B, Njeumi F, Willett BJ, Bailey D. Future research to underpin successful peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) eradication. Ct values in the organs of the two controls goats were negative. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. Goat 3 presented inflammation of the pharynx with bacterial complication and petechial leaflet in lung. OIE. Article  Morbillivirus vaccines: recent successes and future hopes. eCollection 2014. PPR is stand for Pestis des pestitis ruminants. This hypothesis-based balancing act is important to understand PPR. PPR virus (PPRV) causes severe clinical signs in its acute form and signs severity depends on the species, age, strain virulence and secondary infectious agents [11,12,13,14]. In: Chapter 7.8, OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; 2016. p. 1–10. Infected cells and supernatant were harvested and frozen at − 80 °C for subsequent experiments. Vaccine. Results presented are average temperature of four goats infected with cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue. All the authors have seen and approved the content and have contributed significantly to the work. West African dwarf goats inoculated by culture of PPRV belonging to lineage I died from D28, with clinical signs of pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges with copious ocular discharge, sneezing and coughing, while oral erosions, profuse diarrhoea after the first 15 dpi [29].
2020 pathogenesis of ppr virus